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Science v/s Spiritualism


|| Science v/s Spiritualism ||


This link contains interesting articles on diverse topics glorifying our ancient culture and civilization, which are not only informative but goes to prove the great insight our ancient sages possessed and also that the theories they had propounded were not just suppositions but based on scientific reasons. The idea is to reveal to the world of our glorious past, rich culture and heritage- to prove that at the time when the rest of the world was engulfed by ignorance, our country was blessed with enlightened sages. The articles given here are also ample testimony to the fact that our ancient sages, in their quest for ultimate knowledge, had delved deep into level of human consciousness in order to find solutions to the mystery of the world. They were successful because the conclusion they arrived upon emanated from deep state of meditation in which all the mysteries of the world were unfolded to them.


The origin of earth is a question, which has baffled man since time immemorial. Modern science, too, has tried to find answer to this question, which quite amazingly corroborates the statements made by our ancient sages in this regard. Scientists having belief in the theory of evolution like Professor Solas, Shimper, Hackel Keith and Doctor Church, after their research came to the conclusion that man has been existing on the earth only for the last 8, 20, 000 years. But, their findings contradicts the theory of evolution itself, which states that it takes a extremely long period of time for any living creature to evolve. This way the time period of man's origin is further decreased to mere few thousand years.

If we look at the history of the world as well as the various calendars related with different ancient civilizations, the above theory is proved wrong. The Christian calendar begins with the birth of Jesus Christ, which is the most modern calendar as Christ was born 2002 years ago. As compared to the Christian calendar the calendar propounded by Moses is more ancient since it began 3540 years ago. Like way Yudhishthir's calendar which began 4132 years ago at the time of his coronation is more ancient. There are other calendars more ancient than the above mentioned calendars like, Kaliyugi samvat which is 5077 years old, Ibranian calendar which is 5989 years old, Egyptian calendar which is 28629 years old and Finishian calendar which is 30,0047 years old. The Iranian civilization believed to be one of the oldest one has a calendar dating as far as 189955 years back. In the same manner Chaldian calendar considered significant for astrological information it contains is 2,15,000,47 years old. The followers of Khatai religion trace their roots to Khata who was born 8,88,40,348 years ago and their calendar is that much ancient. The Chinese calendar, which is related with the first king of China, is believed to be further ancient i.e. 9,60,02,476 years old.

The origin of man, when determined on the basis of Vaivaswat Manu samvatswar, one of the fourteen samvatsars goes back 12,05,33,077 years old. A mantra created by our ancient sages and used during taking a 'Sankalpa' in religious ceremonies, which is still in practice, states that the man has continued to inhabit the earth for the last 1,97,29,40,037 years.

Modern Geologists, working on four hypotheses tried to determine the age of the earth-

  1. On the basis of formation of layers of rock-- They assume that the earth must have been experiencing rainfall since the time of it's creation. The vaporization of ocean's water caused by the Sun and the resultant rainfall must have been the reason behind the creation of rivers. These modern Geologists also presume that the flowing rivers carried layers of soil with them. It was a continuous and long process, which helped the scientists to come to the conclusion that it took 880 years to form one foot thick layer of soil. The thickest rock they have found till date is 5, 14,000 feet thick. So, on the basis of the above theory the age of the earth comes up to 5,42,38,20,000 years. But, geologists discarded this conclusion because of its over dependence on imaginations and little scientific base.

  2. On the basis of the salinity of ocean' water-- This theory is based on the assumption that the salinity of oceans' water has been increasing in a gradual manner by the flowing rivers transporting mineral salts into them since time immemorial. The result was increased level of salinity in the oceans' water with each passing year. Scientists were of the view that the phenomenon of vaporization did not have any effect on the salinity of oceans' water i.e. the quantity of salt in the oceans' water did not reduced and always remained the same. To determine the quantity of salt found in ocean water scientists did experiment by taking one gallon of ocean water as specimen. They then determined the quantity of salt transported by rivers each year into the ocean. Now they divided the total quantity of salt contained in ocean and divided it by the quantity of salt transported by river into it. After calculating they came to the conclusion that the age of the earth was 12,00,00,000 years. But geologists discarded this assumption too.
  1. On the basis of assumed temperature of earth since the time when it came into existence-- A scientist named Lord Calvin with the help of his research made on this subject assumed that the earth's temperature at the time of its creation was 3900 degree centigrade. He then found out the present temperature of the earth's surface and also its average depreciation that was caused each year. After dividing the present temperature of the earth with the average depreciation of temperature they came to the conclusion that the earth's age was 10,00,00,000 years.

  2. Disintegration of radio active materials-- This theory is based on the assumption that there is a continuous process of disintegration going on in radio active materials like Uranium, Thorium and Radium. It is also the most accepted theory for determining the age of earth. These materials continuously radiate radio active rays like alpha, beta and gamma. In course of time they get transformed into lead. Since this transformation is irregular and effected over a very long period of time as well therefore it is not easy to arrive at any definite conclusion. Still, scientists have found a way to determine the 'mid-life' of a radio active element i.e. the period of time within which it is expected to reduce half in its size. Scientists took an ancient rock as a sample and found that it contained 119 grams of uranium in it. A sample of stone taken from its neighborhood contained 309 grams of lead, which had actually come into existence after getting disintegrated from uranium. Scientists also found after their numerous experiments that on average disintegration of 238 gram of uranium made 206 gram of lead. So, after calculation they arrived at the conclusion that 306 gram of lead must have been made from 357 gram of uranium (238 x 309/ 206). Also that the present 119 gram of uranium was actually 357+ 119= 476 gram in its initial form long time ago.

Scientists have also found that uranium reduces to half in size in 456,00,000,00 years. That implies that it would take the above mentioned period of years for uranium weighing 476 grams to reduce to 238 grams. In the same manner it would take further 456,00,000,00 years for uranium piece weighing 238 grams to reduce to half i.e. 119 grams. Thus scientists on the basis of this theory assumed the age of the earth to be 45,60,00,00,000 + 45,60,00,00,000 = 912,00,000,00 years.

The most ancient rock has been discovered in Canada and after calculating in the above mentioned way scientists have found that the earth was 198,00,000,00 years old. This is the age of the earth as determined by the scientists and the most widely expected.

Now, let us consider what our ancient sages have said in this regard. The shloka given below is chanted before commencing any religious ceremony. It also gives an idea about the origin of earth. The shloka goes as follows--


This shloka amazingly contains vital information related with earth's origin. In this shloka a word 'Parardh' has come. What is the meaning of this word? There is a shloka in Bhagwatpuran shedding ample light on it--


MEANING-- Lord Brahma's age is 100 years. He has already crossed the first parardha (50 years) and entered the second one. The process of creation begins simultaneously with lord Brahma's day. At the end of the day night starts and which is of same duration. One day of Brahma (constituting of day and night) is equal to a KALPA of mortal world. There is a shloka in MANUSMRITI, which gives equation between Brahma's day (Kalpa) and divine years or Chaturyugas. The shloka is as follows--


MEANING-- A day of Brahma (Kalpa) is equal to 1000 divine years or Chaturyugas. The night descends at the end of his day and its duration is same as the day.

A day of Brahma is equivalent to one Kalpa which itself consists of 14 manvantars as mentioned below--
1) Swayambhuv, 2) Swarochis, 3) Uttam, 4) Tamas, 5) Raivat, 6) Chakshush, 7) Vaivaswat, 8) Savarnik, 9) Daksha Savarnik, 10) Brahm Savarnik, 11) Dharma Savarnik, 12) Rudra Savarnik, 13) Rudra Savarnik, 14) Indra Savarnik. Presently the seventh manvantar- Vaivaswat is running and there are seven more manvantars to go.

The fractional expression that has come in the above division symbolizes what sages have called SANDHIKAAL- the intermediary period between two manvantars when the world is devoid of any creation. A sandhikaal constitutes of 4800 divine years, which is also the duration of Satyayuga. So, while calculating the age of the earth we can not overlook this aspect. Now, coming to the calculation part--

PERIOD OF SANDHIKAAL =4800 x 15 = 72000 DIVINE YEARS = 6 CHATURYUGAS (since one chaturyuga= 1200 divine years)

The duration of each of the four yugas has been clearly described in the Mahabharata (188 / 22-26), which is as follows--" The duration of Satya yuga is 4800 divine years inclusive of 800 divine years of Sandhya and Sandhyansh periods. Treta yuga consists of 3600 divine years inclusive of 600 divine years of Sandhya and Sandhyansh periods. In the same manner Dwapar yuga consists of 2400 divine years inclusive of 400 divine years of Sandhya and Sandhyansh periods, while Kaliyuga consists of 1200 divine years inclusive of 100 divine years of Sandhya and Sandhyansh periods respectively.

Therefore a CHATURYUGA consists of 12000 (4800+ 3600+2400+1200 ) divine years. MANUSMRITI gives an equation between a divine year and the year of our mortal world in just one shloka---


MEANING-- A divine day (including night) is equal to one year of this mortal world. The period during which Sun is north of equinox or uttarayan is the day time of the deities while the period during which Sun is south of equinox or Dakshinayan is their night time. So, after minute calculations our ancient sages arrived at the following conclusions--

  • Brahma has already completed his 15'th year as well as 6 manvantars and 7 sandhikaal of his first day.     (The earth is supposed to have come into existence on the first day of Brahma) Till date 27 manvantars alongwith their Sandhikaals have already passed.
  • The three Yugas namely Satya, Treta and Dwapar of the present Manvantar, which is 28'th in order have already passed.
  • We are presently in 2059 year according to Vikram Samvat calendar, which implies that we are in fact running in the 5102'nd year of the
         Kaliyuga. Now coming back to the final calculation--

    1. 6 MANVANTAR = 6 x 71CHATURYUGAS = 6 x 71 x 1200 DIVINE YEARS = 51,12,000 DIVINE YEARS.



    3. 3 YUGAS HAVE ALREADY PASSED THAT MEANS 4800 + 3600 + 2400 = 10,800 DIVINE YEARS

    WHEN ALL THE THREE DATAS GIVEN ABOVE ARE ADDED= 51,12,000 + 33,600 + 3,24,000 + 10,800 DIVINE YEARS = 54,80,600 DIVINE YEARS.


    WHEN WE ADD 5102 YEARS OF THE KALIYUGA THEN WE GET 1972949069 + 5102= 1,97,29,49,102 YEARS OF THIS WORLD.



    This amply goes to prove how advance was the science of mathematics in ancient India and also the perfection our ancient sages had in mathematical calculations. They had accurately calculated the age of the earth, which is very near to what science has arrived upon after countless experiments and much floundering. Man living in the present era bitten by the bug of modernism may try to underestimate the findings of our ancient sages but he should keep in mind that they determined the earth's age merely with the help of meditation and mathematical calculations. On the contrary science had to employ all the modern technology at its command to determine the same and even then it is not confident of its findings because the research is still going on and everyday something new is happening in the field of science. What one thing is established as a theory one day turns out to be a hypothesis another day. But, our sages have confidently proclaimed that the earth is 1,97,29,49,102 years old-- not one day more or less. Now, it depends upon you whom you want to believe?


    The world is undergoing continuous changes both perceptible and imperceptible. Nothing is static in this world. Even those things, which appear static to our eyes, are in fact mobile and in motion. Matter is made up of molecules and atoms. Scientists have discovered that the structure of an atom is similar to that of solar system. Electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom just as planets revolve around the Sun in their respective orbits. When our ancient sages, in their deep level of meditation experienced this eternal truth, they proclaimed that the world was nothing but MAYA and things are not as they are perceived by our sense organs. Although the Sun appears static to our eyes but the fact is to the contrary as it is revolving, along with its planets around another Sun belonging to another galaxy, larger in size. The second Sun itself, in turn is moving around another Sun which is even larger than the second Sun. Our ancient sages in their deep meditative level saw that it was an endless process.

    This mobility is evident even within our body though it does not appear so from outside. All the organs are diligently engaged in their respective functions. The heart is palpitating without taking rest even for a moment. Blood is continuously circulating in the arteries and veins. The digestive system is functioning all the time by digesting the foodstuffs we partake and providing energy without which it will be impossible for us to function. Similarly, if our lungs stop functioning then we can not live even for a moment. Same will be our fate if the heart stops functioning. But, all these functions are involuntary and are not visible from outside.

    As mentioned above, even the non-living things, which are made up of countless atoms, are continuously vibrating from within- the rock, the stone, mountains, rivers- nothing is static but continuously vibrating. If the electrons stop revolving around the nucleus of the atom the very existence of matter would be in jeopardy. Be it a non-living matter or the Universe itself: everything is mobile, continuously moving either from within or outside.

    Motion is life whereas immobility means death. For the world to function in an orderly manner motion is of utmost importance without which it will cease to functions. The earth though appearing static to us, is in fact continuously in motion not only from outside but also from within. The geologists are of the view that there are large Tectonic plates within the earth and they are continuously moving. This is the reason why we find our earth divided into seven continents.

    According to latest geological researches even these continents are drifting apart in a gradual manner. Geologists have also found that the earth is not as solid as it appears. There are ten huge blocks of semi-liquid matter, each 65k.m.x 95k.m in size floating inside the earth, where due to extraordinary heat everything is in a molten state. According to the geologists all these ten blocks were united as one single block about 20,00,00,000 years ago. Obviously, there was only one continent at that time and not seven as seen today. In course of time it got divided into seven continents because of the movement of the Tectonic plates. As mentioned above, even the continents are drifting apart at the rate of 1c.m - 15 c.m per year. Europe and North America are drifting apart at the rate of 2.5 c.m per year. When these moving Tectonic plates collide with each other then natural phenomena like volcanoes and Earthquakes happen. Sometimes, the collision is so powerful that hot Lava comes out from the mouth of the volcano. Mountains and ocean are nothing but the aftereffects of the collision of these moving Tectonic plates. Scientists say that the place where the great Himalaya stands today was an ocean-bed once upon a time. They also say that the two most ancient civilizations of the world- Laimuria and Atlantis no longer exist.

    Two American scientists, Robert Gene and John Holdan, are of the opinion that 20,00,00,000 years ago Japan and India were situated near North and south poles respectively, which is not the case today. Australia and Southern part of India were the first two land blocks to get detached from the South Pole and in course of time they reached their present geographical position. Both of them also said that this process started 18,00,00,000 years ago and India was the country to have made the maximum movement because it has traveled a distance of 8800 miles during this period. They have also predicted that North and South America would move further towards west while Panama and Central America would move further towards North. Due to the movement of Tectonic plates Himalaya's height would increase further and India would move further towards East. Australia would drift towards North and eventually unite with Asia. Numerous new islands would emerge near Mediterranean sea. The very existence of Mediterranean sea would be at stake due to the constant movement of Africa and Europe towards each other.

    So, it is clear that change and mobility is a natural law and nothing is beyond its realms- not even human beings. The reason for man's sorrow is his rigidity and his reluctance to adapt with the moving times. He, in his ignorance, clings with his past beliefs and traditions even if they have become of no use to him in the present circumstances. Beliefs that were relevant hundred years ago can not be of same use in the present times when the world has changed dramatically in every respect. This attitude of his is against the law of nature which undergoes changes in an incessant manner. The point we are trying to make is that man should modify himself according to the changed circumstances if he desires joy and happiness. Joy is nothing but flowing with time and getting struck in the past is sorrow. Because, it is the natural law and the whole universe works according to it.


    In India, the astrological science had already reached its pinnacle thousands of years ago. Ancient astrological works had been translated into many foreign languages. Ibn Batuta and Al Baruni were two prominent Arab travelers who had visited India during ancient times to pursue their studies, particularly Astrology. Al Baruni had come to India along with Mahmud Ghaznavi- the notorious invader. He stayed in India for 14 years- from 1017 A.D.- 1031 A.D. Among numerous astrological works, he had also got 'Brahma-Gupta'- an astrological treatise translated into arabic, which became famous as 'Indica'.

    Al Baruni was a Sanskrit scholar. His work 'Indica' became world famous. A German scholar named Adward C. Shancho, was so impressed by it that he decided to translate into his own language. The German translation of Indica was widely acclaimed and increased the curiosity of Germans in Indian astrology. Many German scholars came to India and studied vedic literatures. While returning to Germany, they carried a large number of Vedic texts with them.

    Yavanacharya, was another foreign scholar who had visited India for studying Astrology. He stayed for a long time and wrote two books- Vrihayavan Jatak and Laghu Yavan Jatak. He was a prominent scholar of his times and had command over various languages like Sanskrit, Arabic as well as his own mother tongue Greek. Varahmihir- the famous astronomer of ancient India has reverently mentioned his contributions made in Astrology in his works- 'Brihatsanhita' and 'Brihajjatak'. Apart from the above mentioned few foreign astrologers there were others who had gained tremendously by Indian astrology such as Al Fazari, Yakub- Bin- Tarik, Abu- Al- Hasan. Scholars are of the view that India had been a center of attraction for foreign scholars even before the birth of Christ and numerous foreign scholars had been visiting this great land to fine tune their knowledge of Astrology.

    Abdul-Rahim-Khankhana, one of the nine Navratna's in the court of Mughal emperor Akbar, was a great admirer of Indian civilization. He was also an excellent poet and an Astrologer. His command over Sanskrit was exceptional considering the fact that he not an Indian native but a person of Iranian origin. Two of his works are masterpieces on the subject of Astrology- 'Khet Kautukam' and 'Dwawishd yogavali'. These two books still act as books of reference for people interested in Astrology.

    In ancient India numerous observatories had been made for doing research on Astronomy but unfortunately not many of them survive at present- they were destroyed by invading marauders. Scholars are of the view that Varah Mihir had constructed 'Meru Stambh', what is presently famous as qutub minar, 2200 years ago for doing research on astronomy. There is a village near Delhi called Mehrauli, which is named after Acharya Mihir. It was a seven storeyed structure constructed in the middle of a lake. These seven storeyes symbolized seven planets and this structure also had 27 windows symbolizing twenty seven constellations. Black-stone has been used in the construction of Meru-Stambh so that there was darkness inside. The main entrance faces North and is slanted slightly backwards towards south at an angle of five degree. Its foundation is 16 yards deep and its actual height was 84 yards but which now has been reduced to 76 yards. Britishers had demolished the topmost storey to prevent the structure from falling as the slant was more prominent at the top and it caused threat to the structure.


    Scientists feel that there are planets, satellites, Nebulas and milky ways in this infinite space, which have an atmosphere and climate conducive for life. The facts that have come out after scientific researches points towards the increased possibilities of life existing beyond the realm of Earth and also that there are planets in this infinite space inhabited by civilization superior and advanced than us.

    Dr. Cyril Ponnemperupa, the director of Chemical Development Institute of Maryland University, U.S.A. is of the opinion that there are at least Ten Lac advanced civilizations existing in the infinite space. Scientists have set up many laboratories well furnished with modern radio equipment and computers to study them. The efforts are on to decode and decipher the radio signals received from these highly advanced civilizations. The quantum leap made by Radio Astronomy in recent times has increased the chances of developing contacts with these highly advanced civilizations.

    In 1959-60, Dr. Frank Drake of National Radio Astronomy Observatory started doing experiments to study the possibilities of life in space. The project was named 'Ozma'. Apart from this effort made by N.R.A.O. there were similar efforts made by few other scientific institutions of repute like NASA PROJECT COMMITTEE, which established Machachuets Institute of technology under the leadership of Philip Morrison.

    Karl Sagan, the director of 'Constellation research laboratory' after his research came to the conclusion that there are civilizations in space more advanced than us. He has narrated his experiences in books like 'The Dragons of Eden' and 'Cosmos', etc. He was of the opinion that if man was able to develop contact with any of them then he could be benefited tremendously.

    The largest observatory of the world is situated at Portariko. The equipment kept there have recorded radio signals received from space- the 'beep' sound followed a definite pattern like it began by beeping once… then twice…then thrice….and the largest number of 'beeps' made were thirty one. According to the scientists these signals came from space and were sent by some highly advanced alien civilization. These signals were sent with the idea of developing contact with us. Unfortunately, we have not been successful in deciphering their signals and understand what messages our friends are trying to give to us.

    Most of us have heard a lot of 'Flying Saucers'. Australian scientist professor Ronald Bracewell is of the view that these Flying Saucers are in fact survey aircraft sent by the alien creatures living somewhere in space. They come to see what progress human beings have made and they give their reports back home through radio signals. Jacks Balli, French scientist is of the opinion that these advanced civilizations come to the earth to develop contact with us. He says- 'They are small in physical stature but with abnormally high degree of intelligence. Unfortunately, we have not been able to develop friendly relationship with these highly advanced civilizations.'

    Karl Jung-the famous psychologist was of the opinion that flying saucers were the aircraft of the alien creatures, which periodically visited earth. Arik Van Daiken-a German scholar has given numerous instances in his famous book- Chariots of the God, which goes to prove that highly intelligent and civilized creatures of distant planets descend to Earth to help us.

    In ancient times these alien creatures had direct contact with the people of Earth. They came on their specially designed aircraft to share their expertise and knowledge with us. Numerous instances can be found even in the present times, which proves that these alien creatures are in contact with us.

    In Vedic literature we find mention of deities travelling in space on their aircraft. There were some spots on earth which were frequently visited by deities and where there aircraft landed like Sumeru Mountain, Vindhyachal and the Himalayan valley. In Rigveda we find mention of a unique chariot which could travel anywhere- on land, in water and in air. Ashwinikmars had a unique chariot named Trichakra, which moved in air on its own without being pulled by a horse. Sage Bhardwaj has mentioned in 'Yantra Sarvaswa' of variety of aircraft working on different kind of energies and fuels like steam, solar, water, air, oil and magnetic. Similarly we find mention of various other aircraft in other scriptures- Pushpak-Viman in Ramayan, Vyom-Viman in Yantra Kalpataru, Shalva's-Viman in Mahabharat. We find mention of such aircraft even in Chinese folklore and Greek mythology. In the holy bible it has been mentioned that -a aircraft emerged from the 'Tower of light' in the North and four divine people resembling humans alighted from it.'

    All these instances go to prove that alien creatures have been in constant touch with us since time immemorial and continue to do so.


    In ancient India, astrology constituted an integral part of our education system and which comprised of various streams like astronomy, study of planetary motions and other related subjects. Our ancestors successfully predicted the future events with the help of astrology.

    The Rigveda is the first book written by a man. It is believed that all the four Vedas were written between 4000B.C.- 2500 B.C. There are many instances evident in the Vedas, which goes to prove that our ancient sages had a deep knowledge of this subject. For example Rigveda contains the names of zodiacs and planets. Similarly, in Yajurveda we find mention of the names of constellations or nakshatra.

    According to Atharvaveda, sage Gargya was the first person in human history to have made efforts in the direction of zodiacal divisions of space. Apart from these we also find the descriptions of 28 constellations or nakshatras, milky way or akash ganga, the great bear or saptarshi mandal. Indian astronomers were the first to name the six seasons and the twelve months.

    Physicists stumbled upon an important fact, which had been already established by our sages in Taiteriya Sanhita that the sun-ray comprised of seven colors and they have used a specific term to describe it- sapta rashmi.

    After the vedic age came the Ramayana era followed by Mahabharat era. It is said that, sage Valmiki, the author of Ramayana, apart from being an enlightened soul was also an astrologer of highest caliber. He has described in detail the planetary motions and how they affect us. Ravana, the demon king was himself a great astrologer and it is said that there was nobody who could match his genius during his times. Ravan Sanhita is the testimony to his great astrological knowledge and is considered as the standard book of reference by astrologers even today.

    The above mentioned were not the only two astrologers of repute in the Ramayana era. There were many more like sage Vashishth, Vishwamitra, Manu, Yagyavalkya, etc. Sage Yagyavalkya in his famous work 'Yagvalkya Smriti' has described in detail about the stars and the light emanating from them. In Mahabharat, we not only find the description of various astrological terms like planets, constellations and the effects of Rahu and Ketu, but it has also been clearly mentioned that a lunar eclipse had preceded the great war of Mahabharata.

    Some other prominent astrologers who graced India by their presence before the christian era began were Vyas, Atri, Parashar, Kashyap, Narad, Garg, Marichi, Lomesh, Paulastya, Chyavan, Yavan, Bhrigu, Shaunak etc.

    Unfortunately situations started to deteriorate between 500 B.C- 500 A.D as this was the period when onslaughts of the invading marauders had begun. Alexander the great had attacked India during this very period. Archaeologists are of the view that apart from plundering the wealth these invaders destroyed many astrological manuscripts of great significance and observatories that had been set up to study planetary motions. It is also believed, that, many manuscripts were similarly taken by these invaders to their native countries. This was how our ancient astrological treaties reached west and got translated in many languages such as Arabic, German, Roman and French. These translated books are still available in the museums of the respective western countries.

    Aryabhatta, the great astrologer hailing from Patriputra undertook the mission of reviving the past glory of Astrology. He was born in 47 A.D. He received his education at Patliputra, which was a prominent educational center during those times. He had many works to his credit but three among them are prominent- Aryabhattam, Tantra and Dasha Geetika.

    Varahmihir was another astronomer who made invaluable contribution to astronomy. He was born at Kalpi in Ujjain. His researches are recorded in books like Brihad Jatak , Brihatsanhita,etc. These books contain information on almost all the events and phenomena taking place in the universe such as eclipses, meteor-fall, earthquake, rain, planets, constellations, effects of planetary motion on us. Some scholars are of view that astrophysics-the stream of physics related with the study of the effects of the magnetic and thermal effects of heavenly-bodies draws inspirations from Varahmihir's works. 'Panch Siddhantika' is another equally important book on Astronomy written by Varahmihir and it contains some remarkable astronomical findings.

    Bhashkaracharya had discovered the law of gravitation well before Newton did some thousand years later. The following shloka mentioned in Siddhant Shiromani proves this point-


    - The earth has gravitational force and hence it attracts. The force is greatest at its surface but as the distance increases this force starts decreasing. If a heavy object and a light object is simultaneously dropped from a height, both the objects would reach the earth at the same time. Planets and Earth move due to gravitational (intra) force working on each other.

    Science has made remarkable progress in the last one Hundred year. Now, it is well equipped with very powerful radars and telescopes, which can be of great help in verifying the discoveries made by our ancient sages.

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