According to the scriptures, each man is indebted in three ways. Our ancient sages have described the means of being free from these three debts. One must not try to avoid or run away from these debts. If a man dies with the debt over his head, , then he will have to clear those debts in his next birth. Therefore a man must clear all these three debts, which are as under.
1. PITRARINA - (Indebtedness towards the Ancestors)
2. RISHIRINA - (Indebtedness towards the Rishi (Sages)
3. DEVA RINA - (Indebtedness towards Deities & God)
The different ways to clear all these three debts are described as below :
1. PITRARINA - A man is fortunate to have a virtuous son, because being a virtuous soul he would perform all the pitrakarma (Shraadh) - offering of water, food, etc. to the Brahmanas. TARPANA - Libation of water to the deceased ancestors, Brahmana-Bhoja - Feeding the Brahmins).
2. RISHI RINA - By doing Tarpana to the Rishis daily, one gets free from the debts, which Rishis have on us.
3. DEVA RINA - By doing worship of the deities we get liberated from DEVA RINA.
The same thing has been said by Sage AASHVAKAAYAN in the following way
ATHOCCHYATTE GRIHASTHASYA NITYAKARMA YATHAVIDHI
YATKRITVAA NRINYA MAAPNOTI DAIVAAT PAITTRAYAACCH MAANUSHAAT
The Nitya Karma of a man is being explained as in the scriptures, by performing which, a man is liberated from the RINA (Debts) which he has towards DEVA, RISHI and PITRA.
"JAAYAMAANO VAI BRAHMANAH TRIBHIR RINVAA JAAYATE"
According to the above shloka which has been derived from TAITIRIYA UPANISHAD means that As soon as a man takes birth, he carries three Rinas over his Head. To get liberated from these three Rina (Debts) performing the NITYA KARMA has claimed to be it's remedy.
There are Six Karmas in the NITYA KARMA
SANDHYAA SNAANAM JAPASHCHAIVA DEVATAANAAM CHA POOJANAM |
VAISHVADEVAM TATHATITHYAM SHAT KARMAANI DINE DINE ||
(A man should take bath SNAAN, perform SANDHYAA (worship in the evening), Japa (Chanting of Mantras) Devapoojan (Worship of Deities), BALIVAISHVADEVA (repenting atonement for such petty sins which are committed daily and are unavoidable, like we kill infinite number of germs while cooking,walking,cleaning the house etc. There are six Karma to be performed daily.
DUTIES (KRITYA) TO BE PERFORMED BEFORE HAVING A BATH IN THE MORNING
The scriptures have explained some compulsory duties, which must be performed. Each GRIHASTHA (a householder) should perform these NITYA KARMA. According to the rules given in the scriptures, only after that he is fit to be called a SHAT-KARMA ADHIKAARI (or performer of six duties.)
GETTING UP IN THE BRAHMA MUHURTA
A man must get up one and a half hour before Sun Rise. There are many disadvantages of not awaking in that time, described in the scriptures like
BRAAHME MUHURTE YAA NIDRAA SAA PUNYAKSHAYA KAARINEEM,
TAAM KAROTI DVIJO MOHAAT PAAD KRICCHREN SHUDHYATI.
(A sleep during the time of Brahmamuhurta destroys all the virtues, One who sleeps during this time commits a sin, which can be atoned (PRAYASCHIT) by performing PAADAKRICCHA (There is no need for atonement in the case of a sick man or a man who had been performing KEERTANA the previous night.)
KARAAVALOKAN (SEEING THE PALMS)
As soon as one wakes up in the morning, during the Brahmamuhurta period, the first thing he must do is to watch the palms of Both his hands, and say the following SHLOKA.
KARAAGRE VASATE LAKSHAMIH KARMADHYA SARSWATI,
KARMOOLE STHITO BRAHMAA PRABHAATE KARDARSHANAM
(Laxmi dwells in the foremost part of the palm, Saraswati in the middle part of the palm, At the Base of the palm resides Brahma, One must see his palms everyday.)
By doing this act no matter how misfortunate a man is, his fortune will change for good because the palms where Laxmi, Saraswati and Brahma dwells, how can that man be unfortunate? According to Palmistry, great importance have been attributed to the Lines of the palm. The Palmist, not only give the details of Man's life from the time of his birth till his death, but he can also give details about his previous births and forthcoming births.
So seeing the palms of the hand in the morning not only begins a good day for us but also it turns the bad lines into good lines. Therefore one must say the given Shloka while seeing the palms.
BHOOMI VANDANA (SALUTATION TO MOTHER EARTH)
After getting up from the Bed and before keeping your feet down on the Bhoomi (Mother Earth) one should do salutations to Bhoomi and also beg for pardon for the helplessness of putting your feet on her, by saying this shloka.
SAMUDRAVASANE DEVI PARVAT ASTANMANDALE,
VISHNU PATNI NAMASTUBHYAM PAAD SPARSHAM KSHAMASVAME
(Salutations to the wife of Lord Vishnu, Vasundhara (Earth), whose Vastra (Apparels) are SAMUDRA (Oceans), and whose STANA (Breast) are the Mountains. Forgive me for the sin, by putting my feet upon you.)
The Status of Mother Earth is higher than our own mother, who has given birth to us, because our Mothers look after our welfare till we are grown up i.e. (feeding, Sanitation etc.) but the Mother earth looks after us and care for us, since the time of birth, till we die by nourishing us with food, and accepting even our excrement. Even after being indebted to Mother, Earth, a man acts unfaithfully to her by causing numerous harms to her, like digging, filling the earth with waste products, felling trees etc. To make her sons happy and satisfied, Mother Earth accepts all the pains.
MANGAL DARSHANA (AUSPICIOUS SIGHT)
After the salutations to the Mother Earth sight of Chandana (Sandalwood) Sona (Gold), Shankh (Conch), Mridanga (a Rhythmic musical instrument), Darpana (Mirror), Mani (diamond) are considered Auspicious. After that one should make salutations to his GURU (Teacher, Mother-Father, elders) Agni (Fire) and the Sun (Surya).
PROSTRATION TO MOTHER FATHER AND GURU (TEACHER)
One must daily prostrate before his parents GURU (TEACHER) and all the elders, because according to the VEDAS, Parents and Teachers have been compared with the Devta (Deities) like,
MATRI DEVO BHAVAH, PITRA DEVO BHAVAH, AACHAARYA DEVO BHAVAH
(Mother, Father and Teacher are deities)
Great importance of Prostration has been described in our scriptures :-
ABHIVAADAN SHEELASYA NITYAM VRIDDHO UPASEVINAH,
CHATVAARI TASYA VARADAHANTE AAYURVIDDYA YASHOBALAM
(One who is a prostrator by nature, and is always in the service of Old (VRIDDHA) (GYAANVRIDDHA (Senior on account of his knowledge), KARMAVRIDDHA- Being Senior on account of his Superior Actions).
AVASTHAVRIDDHA (Senior on account of his Age) achieves four things AAYU (Long-Life) VIDDYA (Knowledge) YASHA (FAME) and BALA (Strength).
These four things have invaluable importance in the life of a Man. A person who possesses all these four things, does not lack anything in the life. Therefore a Man should try to practice Prostration. After the Prostration, it is necessary to purify our minds.
MANTRA FOR PURIFICATION OF MIND (MAANASIK SHUDDHI MANTRA)
OM APAVITRAH PAVITRO VAA SARVAAVASTHAAM GATOPIVAA,
YAH SMARET PUNDAREEKA AKSHAM SA VAAHYAA BHYANTARAH SHUCHIH
ATINEEL GHANSHYAAMAM NALINAAYAT LOCHANAM
SMARAAMI PUNDAREEKAAKSHAM TEN SNAATO BHAVAAMYAHAM
One should sprinkle water on his body after saying these two Mantras. By doing this one purifies his body.Then one should remember the Almighty God by doing JAPA (Chanting of Mantras), Kirtan (devotional song) etc according to his liking.